Prevention of Peanut Allergy in the United States

Summary for Parents and Caregivers | National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

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Recent scientific research has shown that peanut allergy can be prevented by introducing peanut-containing foods into the diet early in life. Researchers conducted a clinical trial called Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) with more than 600 infants considered to be at high risk of developing peanut allergy because they had severe eczema, egg allergy, or both. The scientists randomly divided the babies into two groups. One group was given peanut-containing foods to eat regularly, and the other group was told to avoid peanut-containing foods. They did this until they reached 5 years of age. By comparing the two groups, researchers found that regular consumption of peanut-containing foods beginning early in life reduced the risk of developing peanut allergy by 81 percent.

Read the full guidelines here

What You Should Know About Mumps: A Disease From the Past Makes a Resurgence

Mumps may seem like a contagion relegated to history books, but like many other diseases of the past now preventable with a vaccine, mumps has been making a resurgence | Infection Control Today

B0006271 Mumps virus protein in cultured cells

Image source: Paul Duprex – Wellcome Images // CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 

Cases are at 10-year high and are especially common on college campuses across the country. Now the Dallas area is seeing the largest outbreak in Texas in years. Cristie Columbus, MD, vice dean of the Texas A&M College of Medicine’s Dallas campus and an infectious disease specialist, explains what people need to know about the mumps.

What is mumps?: Mumps is caused by a virus, specifically a type of Rubulavirus in the Paramyxovirus family. Before the vaccine was widely introduced in the United States in 1967, nearly every child would become infected. Although cases have declined more than 99 percent since then, outbreaks do still occasionally occur.

What are the symptoms of mumps?: The classic symptom of mumps is swollen salivary glands, which causes puffy cheeks and a swollen jaw that can make it difficult to eat. Other symptoms, which last seven to 10 days, may include a fever, fatigue and head and muscle aches. Some people—possibly as many as 40 percent of those infected—may have only very mild symptoms (if they have any at all), and therefore might not realize they have the disease. Still, they may be able to spread the virus to others.

How long after being infected do symptoms usually appear?: Symptoms can appear between 12 and 25 days after the initial infection, but usually people begin experiencing them 16 to 18 days after they are infected.

Read the full overview here

Postpartum Haemorrhage, Prevention and Management (Green-top Guideline No. 52)

This guideline provides information about the prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). This is the second edition of this guideline, which was published in 2009 under the same title | RCOG

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Image source: RCOP

PPH is the most common form of major obstetric haemorrhage. The traditional definition of primary PPH is the loss of 500 ml or more of blood from the genital tract within 24 hours of the birth of a baby. PPH can be minor (500–1000 ml) or major (more than 1000 ml). Major could be divided to moderate (1000–2000 ml) or severe (more than 2000 ml). The recommendations in this guideline apply to women experiencing primary PPH of 500 ml or more.

Read the full guidelines here

Does increased duration of consultant presence affect length of hospital stay?

Cromb, D. et al. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Published online: 6 December 2016

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Objectives: This study aims to review whether implementation of increased duration of consultant presence is associated with reduction in length of hospital stay (LoS) in children with an unplanned admission to hospital.

 

Conclusions: Increased duration of consultant presence was not associated with significant impact on LoS, other than in admissions of brief duration and in gastroenteritis, where diagnosis is based on clinical judgement in the absence of objective diagnostic thresholds. Future studies should focus on whether these results are generalisable across other settings, and other measures of cost-effectiveness of early consultant review, given the major implications on resource and workforce planning of such policies.

Read the full article here

Etiology of Acute Respiratory Infections in Infants

Kumar, P. et al. (2017) Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 36(1) pp. 25–30

B0004785 Parainfluenza virus, TEM

Image source: David Gregory & Debbie Marshall – Wellcome Images // CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Background: There is paucity of studies on etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants. The objective of this study is to document incidence and etiology of ARI in infants, their seasonal variability and association of clinical profile with etiology.

 

Conclusion: In this cohort of infants, ARI incidence was 1.8 episodes per year per infant; 95% were upper respiratory tract infections. Viruses were identified in 63.3% episodes, and the most common viruses detected were rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus.

Read the full abstract here

Weight Control in Adolescents

Chae, S-M. et al. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. Published online: December 18 2016

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Highlights

  • Adolescents and teachers perceived that meaning of weight control in adolescents was overly weighted toward management of one’s appearance.
  • They showed permissive attitudes about increasing weight during adolescence as long as adolescents studied hard.
  • They suggested a school-based weight control program encouraging participation of every student to avoid discrimination against overweight or obesity.
  • Teacher involvement was emphasized to promote participation of adolescents in a weight control program.

Read the full abstract here

New resources on e-cigarette use in pregnancy

New resources launched and webinar scheduled on e-cigarette use in pregnancy | via The Royal College of Midwives

Two new resources on the use of e-cigarettes during pregnancy have been launched to help midwives in their consultations with women. The resources were developed in response to midwives and health visitors being asked for advice on e-cigarette use.

An infographic and a briefing has been produced by the Smoking in Pregnancy Challenge Group, which is a partnership of stakeholders, including the Royal College of Midwives.

These resources  for health professionals  address some of the most frequently asked questions in consultations with women who have expressed an interest in using e-cigarettes to quit smoking.

The documents say that, although not completely risk-free, electronic cigarettes carry a fraction of the risk of smoking for users, with no known risks to bystanders and that e-cigarettes contain no carbon monoxide.

The briefing can be accessed here

Click on the image below to view the infographic:

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Image source: http://www.rcm.org.uk