Respiratory Viral Infections and Coinfections in Children With Cancer, Fever and Neutropenia

Torres, J.P. et al. (2016). Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 35(9). pp. 949–954

colorized-transmission-electron-micrograph-of-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-viruses-seen-in-gold-grown-in-mdck-cells-660x544Background: Respiratory viral infections in episodes of fever and neutropenia (FN) in children with cancer are not well characterized. We compared the clinical outcome of infections caused by different respiratory viruses (RVs) and by RV coinfection in this population.

Methods: Children with cancer and FN at 3 hospitals in Chile were prospectively evaluated by clinical examination, blood cultures and detection of 17 RVs using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (nasopharyngeal samples). Clinical characterization and outcome variables were determined and compared by the type of RV detected.

Results: A total of 1044 episodes of FN in 525 children were included. At least 1 RV was detected in 46%. In 350 of 1044 (34%) episodes, we detected only RVs, of which 284 (81%) were classified as a single-RV infection and 66 (19%) as a viral coinfection. Respiratory symptoms were present at admission in 65% of the episodes with any detected RV. Median age was 6 years (interquartile range, 3–10), and 51% were women. The most common RVs detected were rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, influenza, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus. Episodes caused by different types of RVs had no differences in the clinical outcome (days of hospitalization, days of fever, O2 requirement, admission to the intensive care unit and death) and when comparing single and viral coinfection.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest report comparing clinical outcome in FN episodes caused by different RVs in children with cancer. A positive polymerase chain reaction for RV at admission was significantly associated with the presence of respiratory symptoms. Our data showed a favorable outcome in all episodes with RV detection, including single and viral coinfections.

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Comparative study analysing women’s childbirth satisfaction and obstetric outcomes across two different models of maternity care

Ferrer, M.B.C. et al. BMJ Open. Published online: 26 August 2016

Objectives: To describe the differences in obstetrical results and women’s childbirth satisfaction across 2 different models of maternity care (biomedical model and humanised birth).

Setting: 2 university hospitals in south-eastern Spain from April to October 2013.

Design: A correlational descriptive study.

Participants: A convenience sample of 406 women participated in the study, 204 of the biomedical model and 202 of the humanised model.

Results: The differences in obstetrical results were (biomedical model/humanised model): onset of labour (spontaneous 66/137, augmentation 70/1, p=0.0005), pain relief (epidural 172/132, no pain relief 9/40, p=0.0005), mode of delivery (normal vaginal 140/165, instrumental 48/23, p=0.004), length of labour (0–4 hours 69/93, >4 hours 133/108, p=0.011), condition of perineum (intact perineum or tear 94/178, episiotomy 100/24, p=0.0005). The total questionnaire score (100) gave a mean (M) of 78.33 and SD of 8.46 in the biomedical model of care and an M of 82.01 and SD of 7.97 in the humanised model of care (p=0.0005). In the analysis of the results per items, statistical differences were found in 8 of the 9 subscales. The highest scores were reached in the humanised model of maternity care.

Conclusions: The humanised model of maternity care offers better obstetrical outcomes and women’s satisfaction scores during the labour, birth and immediate postnatal period than does the biomedical model.

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Skin antisepsis for reducing central venous catheter-related infections

Researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health have shown that it’s possible to diagnose a bacterial infection from a small sample of blood — based on the immune system’s response to the bacteria — in infants with fevers who are 2 months of age or younger.

With additional research, the new technique could be an improvement over the standard method, which requires isolating live bacteria from blood, urine or spinal fluid and growing them in a laboratory culture.

Full reference: Mahajan, P.  Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger  Journal of the American Medical Association. Aug. 23, 2016

I Should but I Can’t: Controlled Motivation and Self-Efficacy Are Related to Disordered Eating Behaviors in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Eisenberg, M.H. Journal of Adolescent Health. Published online: August 2016

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Purpose: Among adolescents with type 1 diabetes, disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) are more prevalent and have more serious health implications than in adolescents without diabetes, necessitating identification of modifiable correlates of DEB in this population. This study hypothesized that (1) autonomous motivation and (2) controlled motivation for healthy eating (i.e., eating healthfully because it is important to oneself vs. important to others, respectively) are associated with DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The third hypothesis was that baseline healthy eating self-efficacy moderates these associations.

Methods: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 90; 13–16 years) participating in a behavioral nutrition intervention efficacy trial reported DEB, controlled and autonomous motivation, and self-efficacy at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Linear-mixed models estimated associations of controlled and autonomous motivation with DEB, adjusting for treatment group, body mass index, socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Separate models investigated the interaction of self-efficacy with each motivation type.

Results: Controlled motivation was positively associated with DEB (B = 2.18 ± .33, p < .001); the association was stronger for those with lower self-efficacy (B = 3.33 ± .55, p < .001) than those with higher self-efficacy (B = 1.36 ± .36, p < .001). Autonomous motivation was not associated with DEB (B = −.70 ± .43, p = .11).

Conclusions: Findings identify controlled motivation for healthy eating as a novel correlate of DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes and show that self-efficacy can modify this association. Motivation and self-efficacy for healthy eating represent potential intervention targets to reduce DEB in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

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A Classification Tool for Differentiation of Kawasaki Disease

Shiying Hao et al.  A Classification Tool for Differentiation of Kawasaki Disease from Other Febrile Illnesses The Journal of Pediatrics September 2016 Volume 176, Pages 114–120

Objective

To develop and validate a novel decision tree-based clinical algorithm to differentiate Kawasaki disease (KD) from other pediatric febrile illnesses that share common clinical characteristics.

Study design

Using clinical and laboratory data from 801 subjects with acute KD (533 for development, and 268 for validation) and 479 febrile control subjects (318 for development, and 161 for validation), we developed a stepwise KD diagnostic algorithm combining our previously developed linear discriminant analysis (LDA)–based model with a newly developed tree-based algorithm.

Results

The primary model (LDA) stratified the 1280 subjects into febrile controls (n = 276), indeterminate (n = 247), and KD (n = 757) subgroups. The subsequent model (decision trees) further classified the indeterminate group into febrile controls (n = 103) and KD (n = 58) subgroups, leaving only 29 of 801 KD (3.6%) and 57 of 479 febrile control (11.9%) subjects indeterminate. The 2-step algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.0% and a specificity of 78.5%, and correctly classified all subjects with KD who later developed coronary artery aneurysms.

Conclusion

The addition of a decision tree step increased sensitivity and specificity in the classification of subject with KD and febrile controls over our previously described LDA model. A multicenter trial is needed to prospectively determine its utility as a point of care diagnostic test for KD.

Psychological interventions in managing postoperative pain in children: a systematic review

Davidson, F. et al. (2016) Pain. 157(9). pp. 1872–1886

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Pediatric surgeries are common and painful for children. Postoperative pain is commonly managed with analgesics; however, pain is often still problematic. Despite evidence for psychological interventions for procedural pain, there is currently no evidence synthesis for psychological interventions in managing postoperative pain in children.

The purpose of this review was to assess the efficacy of psychological interventions for postoperative pain in youth. Psychological interventions included Preparation/education, distraction/imagery, and mixed. Four databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, and Certified Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched to July 2015 for published articles and dissertations.

We screened 1401 citations and included 20 studies of youth aged 2 to 18 years undergoing surgery. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using RevMan 5.3. Fourteen studies (1096 participants) were included in meta-analyses. Primary outcome was pain intensity (0-10 metric).

Results indicated that psychological interventions as a whole were effective in reducing children’s self-reported pain in the short term (SMD = −0.47, 95% CI = −0.76 to −0.18). Subgroup analysis indicated that distraction/imagery interventions were effective in reducing self-reported pain in the short term (24 hours, SMD = −0.63, 95% CI = −1.04 to −0.23), whereas preparation/education interventions were not effective (SMD = −0.27, 95% CI = −0.61 to 0.08).

Data on the effects of interventions on longer term pain outcomes were limited. Psychological interventions may be effective in reducing short-term postoperative pain intensity in children, as well as longer term pain and other outcomes (eg, adverse events) require further study.

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Parents’ experience of a follow-up meeting after a child’s death in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit

Brink, H.L. et al. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing. Published online: 12 August 2016

Objective: ‘To identify parents’ experience of a follow up meeting and to explore whether the conversation was adequate to meet the needs of parents for a follow-up after their child’s death in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU).

Design and setting: Qualitative method utilising semi-structured interviews with six pairs of parents 2–12 weeks after the follow-up conversation. The interviews were held in the parents’ homes at their request. Data were analysed using a qualitative, descriptive approach and thematic analysis.

Findings: Four main themes emerged: (i) the way back to the PICU; (ii) framework; (iii) relations and (iv) closure.

Conclusion: The parents expressed nervousness before the meeting, but were all pleased to have participated in these follow-up meetings. The parents found it meaningful that the follow-up meeting was interdisciplinary, since the parents could have answers to their questions both about treatment and care. It was important that the staff involved in the follow-up meeting were those who had been present through the hospitalisation and at the time of the child’s death. Parents experienced the follow-up meeting as being a closure of the course in the PICU, regardless the length of the hospitalisation.

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