Eggs can significantly increase growth in young children

Eggs significantly increased growth and reduced stunting by 47 percent in young children, finds a new study from a leading expert on child nutrition | ScienceDaily

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Eggs significantly increased growth and reduced stunting by 47 percent in young children, finds a new study from a leading expert on child nutrition at the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis. This was a much greater effect than had been shown in previous studies.

Eggs were shown to increase standardized length-for-age score and weight-for-age score. Models indicated a reduced prevalence of stunting by 47 percent and underweight by 74 percent. Children in the treatment group had higher dietary intakes of eggs and reduced intake of sugar-sweetened foods compared to control.

Guidelines aim to help identify and treat stroke in children

New guidelines on recognising and managing stroke in children have been launched by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and the Stroke Association to help prevent the potential damage that can occur if symptoms go unrecognised.

Every year around 400 children in the UK have a stroke, and many are left with severe physical and mental impairments.

The guidelines say that most children experiencing a stroke will have similar symptoms to adults—specifically, weakness of the face and on one side of the body and difficulty with speech. Less commonly, childhood strokes may present with seizures or fits affecting one part of the body or, rarely, a new onset sudden severe headache, the guidelines say, adding that many children will have non-specific signs of illness, such as a decrease in consciousness level or vomiting.

The guidelines also highlight a lack of evidence in terms of treating childhood stroke. In a foreword to the guidelines Tony Rudd, professor of stroke medicine at King’s College, London and national clinical director for stroke at NHS England, says that the first edition of the guideline was published 12 years ago and that one of its main findings was the lack of research into stroke in childhood.

Full document: Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stroke Association. Stroke in childhood: clinical guideline for diagnosis, management and rehabilitation. May 2017.

 

Inducing labour in older women having their first baby does not increase the chance of caesarean delivery

Planning to artificially start labour for older women, pregnant with their first child, in the 39th week of pregnancy does not affect the chance of having a caesarean delivery | NIHR Signal

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Image source: NIHR

Older women having a first baby have a higher risk of stillbirth and other complications than younger mothers and inducing labour at or before the due date is thought to reduce this risk. However, there have been fears that inducing labour may raise the risk of a caesarean delivery.

This study found that women aged 35 or over having their first child and who were induced at 39 weeks had no higher risk of a caesarean (32%) than women who had standard wait-and-see care (33%) with intervention if necessary.

It’s important to note that this study did not investigate whether women whose labour was induced had a lower risk of stillbirth. A large trial is in progress to investigate this issue. In the meantime, the findings may reassure some women aged over 35 that labour induction may carry no more risk of having a caesarean than spontaneous labour.

Read the full overview here

Choice of Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery

Neuraxial anesthesia use in cesarean deliveries (CDs) has been rising since the 1980s, whereas general anesthesia (GA) use has been declining | Anesthesia & Analgesia

In this brief report we analyzed recent obstetric anesthesia practice patterns using National Anesthesiology Clinical Outcomes Registry data. Approximately 218,285 CD cases were identified between 2010 and 2015. GA was used in 5.8% of all CDs and 14.6% of emergent CDs. Higher rates of GA use were observed in CDs performed in university hospitals, after hours and on weekends, and on patients who were American Society of Anesthesiologists class III or higher and 18 years of age or younger.

Full reference: Juang, J. et al. (2017) Choice of Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery: An Analysis of the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 124 (6) pp. 1914–1917

Managing the fussy eater

At some point in time most parents will describe their child as a ‘fussy eater’ | Paediatrics and Child Health

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Because fussiness is not well defined and can, of course, be very subjective, it is sometimes difficult to estimate the prevalence of real ‘fussy’ eating. It is best described as food refusal above and beyond the expected norm, but because different questionnaires measuring different constructs are given to parents of children of a range of ages, the best we can do is to come up with an estimate of around 30% of children being described as truly ‘fussy’.

Full reference: Harris, G. (2017) Managing the fussy eater. Paediatrics and Child Health. Published online: May 19, 2017

Motivational Interviewing to Promote Oral Health in Adolescents

Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling strategy to help people change their behaviors. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of MI in improving adolescents’ oral health | Journal of Adolescent Health

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Fifteen secondary schools were randomly assigned to three groups: (I) prevailing health education, (II) MI, and (III) MI coupled with interactive dental caries risk assessment (MI + RA). Adolescents (n = 512) with unfavorable oral health behaviors (infrequent toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) were recruited; 161, 163, and 188 in groups I–III, respectively. Participants in the three groups received their respective interventions. At baseline and after 6 and 12 months, participants completed a questionnaire on their oral health self-efficacy and behaviors. Their oral hygiene (dental plaque score) and dental caries (number of decayed surfaces/teeth status) were recorded.

MI was more effective than prevailing health education strategy in eliciting positive changes in adolescents’ oral health behaviors and preventing dental caries.

Full reference: Wu, L. et al. Motivational Interviewing to Promote Oral Health in Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health. Published online:May 19, 2017

Alcohol abstention advice to pregnant women is wrong, say campaigners

Health officials and experts are wrong to tell women that they should completely abstain from drinking alcohol during pregnancy, according to campaigners | OnMedica

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Telling women that small quantities of alcohol in pregnancy can cause irreparable damage to a developing foetus has no basis in evidence and can cause needless anxiety, claimed academics and women’s advocates speaking at a conference in Canterbury, Kent.

The conference, Policing pregnancy: who should be a mother?, is a collaboration between the British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) charity, the Centre for Parenting Culture Studies (CPCS), maternal rights campaign group Birthrights, and engaging sociology.

Currently, pregnant women are warned that even light alcohol consumption can cause problems for them and long-term harm to their foetus, such as stunted growth, and eventual learning difficulties and behavioural problems. Warnings also include the possibility of liver damage to the baby and increased risk of the mother having a miscarriage.

Read the full overview here

Related news article by the Guardian available here